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Dark Sweet Cherry Varieties

    Comments: Suggest limited trials for fresh production; may be too large and too susceptible to cracking to grow for processing. Nice quality fruit; good trees; fair yield; cracks badly. Comments: Too late for processing (ripens with Montmorency), but has potential for the late fresh market. Mid-season. Sounds good in reports with exceptionally large fruit size but both trees died prior to fruiting at the NWMHRS (prior to the hard winter of '93-94). Comments: Worthy of trial as early fresh market cherry, but cracking may be too severe.

    Early-Mid
    Hartland (NY3308) - Early mid-season; Windsor open pollinated; Windsor open pollinated; NY selection bears early and heavy; fruit of good quality, but not very large and cracking has been a problem; young trees only moderately hardy, but older trees doing well; pollen compatibility group VI (with Gold). Only one of the two trees has survived. Dwarfing rootstock may overcome production problems in early
    years. Comments: No source of virus free budwood is available, so trees are hard to get and do not get off to the good start that we expect from virus-free trees. Trees are in the process of being cleaned up for virus. Trees planted in 1994 survived the '95-96 winter with no visible problems. Still, cracking is not as good as one would like for processing. Doing very well on Gisela 6 (148-1) rootstock at NWMHRS

    Sam - Mid-season (though usually harvested as early season); B. Comments: Proceed with caution on this variety due to apparent lack of hardiness; if tried, put on excellent sweet cherry site only.

    Attika(Kordia) - From Czechoslovakia (first good look at fruit in NW Michigan in 1998); fruit are large, firm, very good quality, late, exceptionally elongated pit, cracking may be a problem. Comment: Cracking is too serious of a problem for planting significant acreages. Not recommended for Michigan due to cracking. Newly named selection from Vineland, Ontario. As with Lapins, trial plantings should only be made on excellent sites, but may have a niche for late season local sales (though cracking is a problem). This variety has had the largest fruit at the NWMHRS for the past three seasons.

    Nelson - Mid-season; old selection from Northport, Michigan; fruit is good quality (similar to Schmidt), very crack resistant (lowest of any dark cultivar on Station); less problems with bacterial canker than Schmidt; pollen compatibility group unknown (not VI). Tree survival also reported poor from northern Germany where bacterial canker is a serious problem. Comment: Based on this, it is not recommended for large scale planting in Michigan. selection; fruit is moderately large, black, relatively poor flavor, very crack resistant; fruit hangs on the tree well; trees are quite hardy and fairly resistant to bacterial canker; good productivity; fruit bears in clusters that favor brown rot; pollen compatibility group VIII (with Schmidt). Comments: Wonderful late season fresh market cherry, but cracking has been too severe to recommend planting.

    Very Late
    Regina - From York, Germany. It cracks readily and sets fruit and ripens over a period of time, therefore, this variety is not recommended for commercial planting in Michigan but other self-fruitful varieties are following that show promise. Comments: This variety could be planted for processing, but not recommended for fresh. The first trees planted at NWMHRS were on Mahaleb and died prior to cropping, the next were planted on Mazzard and trees look excellent - came through '93-94 and '95-96 winter with no tree problems. Vigorous, upright trees. Self-fruitful. Comments: Good variety for the early season fresh market, but yield too low to plant for processing.

    Vicount -- Early-mid season. Reported to be very late, good quality, highly crack resistant. Comments: Show promise for both processing and fresh market, and worthy of trial plantings, particularly in areas of Michigan with less than ideal sweet cherry sites.

    Van - Late mid-season; fruit is medium large, good quality, shiny, reddish black, very firm, quite susceptible to cracking; very hardy tree; very heavy yields; pollen compatibility group is II. It is getting good reviews in Europe. When compared to Ulster, it has appeared to have slightly better yields, slightly less cracking and less firmness. Cracking on young trees has been worse than expected. Comments: Niche is early season fresh market.

    Sweetheart (135-22-8) - Very late (slightly ahead of Hudson); Van cross from Summerland, B. Comments: This cherry is getting excellent reviews in Europe as a fresh market cherry. Comment: Nice variety for fresh and processing when it doesn't crack. Ontario selection; medium large, good flavor and quality; moderate to heavy cracking when young but is looking better with age (Gus Tehrani indicates good crack resistance); do not plant on Mahaleb; has shown a tendency at NWMHRS to bear very heavy followed by moderate crop. Should also process well, but considered too crack susceptible to recommend planting for processing.

    . Was developed in an area with high bacterial canker pressure, so should have good bacterial canker tolerance.

    Hedelfingen - Late season; fruit is medium to medium large, good quality, not very firm (especially when mechanically harvested), with fair to good crack resistance (above average); very productive; hardy tree; pollen compatibility group VII. Not recommended for planting.

    Tehranivee (V690620) - Van x Stella. Not yet fruiting at the NWMHRS.

    Hudson - Very late (5-7 days after Hedelfingen); NY selection; fruit fairly large, firm, good flavor, fairly good crack resistance; tree is large, hardy, slow to come into bearing on Mazzard, moderately productive (though cropping better with age); blooms late, pollen compatibility group IX (with Rainier).; productive, medium to large fruit, moderate cracking, very good firmness and good flavor. Comments: Sam does particularly well in northwest Michigan on Mahaleb rootstock (where soils allow).

    Late
    Somerset (NY6476) - Late season; Van x Vic; NY selection; fruit are medium-large, reddish purple and very firm; pollen compatibility group III - with Napoleon and Emperor Francis; blooms early season; cracking appears to be a major problem at least while trees are young, though cherry breeder, Bob Anderson, in New York indicates "surprisingly crack resistant" for such "exceptionally firm" fruit.C.

    Schmidt - Mid-season; fruit good quality; very good crack resistance; tree decline is a problem; productivity is also a problem. Comments: Doesn't have the size the fresh market wants, but may have a niche in processing.


    Summit - Mid-season; fruits very large, firm reddish mahogany color at maturity; heart shaped (exceptionally pointed), moderately susceptible to cracking (lost crops in '92 and '93 on young trees with light crops to cracking, but cracking has been fairly light since cropping has been heavy); not precocious but fruit set improves with age; tree hardiness suspect. Cracking was quite bad in '98 on first crop.  Harvesting in mid-season for fresh instead of early season improves flavor. Comments: Have not recommended in new plantings for many years due to problems, but fruit quality is good enough to try this old variety on some of the new rootstocks.

    Mid
    Bing - Mid-season.

    Stella - Mid-season.

    Kristin - Mid-season; New York variety; fruit are moderately large, firm, excellent flavor, NY indicates good crack resistance though our experience would rate it as moderate crack resistance; trees are very hardy (has performed well in Montana and Norway); has yielded well here though warmer climates report it is slow to bear and yields only moderately. As with Tehranivee, nice cherry and very productive but cracking has been a significant problem; therefore not recommended for Michigan.

    Sunburst - Late. Comments: Cracks too much to plant in Michigan. Self-fruitful.

    Vic - Late (with Windsor); Vineland, Ontario release; medium size fruit; yield moderate at NWMHRS, though reported as heavy in Ontario; appears to have good crack resistance; good quality for processing; tree appears to be hardy.

    Sylvia - Very large, firm cherries; trees are dying - apparently due to winter injury; cracking is quite severe in first three years of cropping. Cracking has been very severe on this, otherwise nice quality cherry. While flavor is a problem for some fresh markets, considering all factors, this remains a good choice for processing.

    Windsor - Late mid-season; hardy tree; heavy yield; poor quality fruit. Newly named selection from Vineland, Ontario. As trees planted mature, the cracking is reduced.

    Early
    Cavalier - Early season; fruit medium, good flavor, below average yields, firm, with moderate crack resistance; ripening somewhat uneven; good hardiness; moderate vigor. One died very young, and the surviving tree is doing well.

    Vandalay (V690618) - Van x Stella.

    Viva - Early (1 day after Vista in Ontario); Ontario selection; good flavor; firmness fair; medium size; shy bearing (does not cluster); moderately crack resistant (far superior to Vista in the same season).

    Royalton (NY11390) - Mid-season; exceptionally large fruit; high quality fruit; slow to come into production; yield may be a problem; upright vigorous growth; trees are not surviving well even on exceptionally good sites, blooms early season; pollination Group VIII (with Schmidt). Comments: Remains an important processing variety due to good cropping on a strong, hardy tree, though soft fruit is a concern.

    Ulster - Mid-season; fruit is medium large, good quality, but with moderate cracking susceptibility; bears well; hardy tree; pollen compatibility group III. If planted, may want to try on rootstocks other than Mazzard to help offset the delayed bearing trait.C.

    Valera - Early mid-season; Ontario selection; fruit medium sized, good quality; consistently good crop though it does not bear in heavy clusters; moderate cracking. Comments: This old variety no longer has a market niche in processing or fresh, therefore not suggested for planting.

    Merchant - Early; Origin - United Kingdom; fruit size medium (fairly large for season); good quality fruit; hangs well on tree; picks with dry stem scar; cracks quite badly; vigorous, health tree. Deserves continued planting for fresh and process once virus free trees are available. Maturity was not uniform in 1996. It is worth trying in limited plantings for the fresh market. Fresh limited mainly to local sales. Comments: This was the first named self-fruitful variety. Football shaped pit is expected to be a problem for processing; therefore not recommended at this time to plant for processing.

    Lapins - Popular new variety from British Columbia; late season; fruit are reported to be large and of high quality; at NWMHRS one tree is dead and other in very poor condition; upright, self-fruitful. Fruit size, firmness and yield are poorer than Vista, but cracking is so much less that I think Viva is the preferred cherry at this time.

    Vista - Early; Ontario selection; good quality fruit for the season; very crack susceptible. Fruit are attached quite firmly to stem. Trial only on superior sites. Good fresh potential if trees would survive; too large and shy bearing for processing, has shown moderate cracking on young trees at NWMHRS but reported to have moderately good crack resistance. Comments: I am not optimistic about this variety due mainly to winter injury problems. Comments: Cracking is too serious to recommend planting this otherwise nice variety. Comment: Too susceptible to cracking to plant for anything but possibly to have a few early season fresh cherries for local markets. Processes well, but too shy bearing to generally recommend for processing. Worthy of grower trials based on European experience, but will know much more in the next 2-3 years as first fruiting is expected at NWMHRS in 1999
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